Cognitive Stimulation as a Therapeutic Modality for Dementia: A Meta-Analysis

Kayoung Kim1, Ji Won Han2, Yoonseop So3, Jiyeong Seo4, You Joung Kim2, Joon Hyuk Park5, Seok Bum Lee6, Jung Jae Lee6, Hyun-Ghang Jeong7, Tae Hui Kim8, and Ki Woong Kim

Objective Although cognitive stimulation (CS) is one of the most popular non-pharmacological interventions for people with dementia, its efficacy is still debatable. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of CS in people with dementia.
Methods Data sources were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, psychINFO, and Cochrane Reviews Library. A total of 7,354 articles were identified, and of these, 30 RCTs were selected based on the selection criteria. Of these 30 RCTs, 14 were finally included in our meta-analysis [731 participants with dementia; 412 received CS (CS group) and 319 received usual care (control group)].
Results We found that the people with dementia had a moderate benefit from CS. The mean difference between the CS and control groups was 2.21 [95% CI (0.93, 3.49), Z=3.38, p=0.00007] in the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition and 1.41 [95% CI
(0.98, 1.84), Z=6.39, p<0.00001] in the Mini-Mental State Examination. CS also improved quality of life in people with dementia [95% CI (0.72, 3.38), Z=3.02, p=0.003].
Conclusion CS is effective for improving cognition and quality of life in people with dementia; however, its effects were small to moderate.


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